文章摘要
杨朝磊,李灿锋,田瑜峰,周洪,何建宁,刘建平,马一奇.云南省耕地 “非粮化”现状及其生态环境效应[J].矿产勘查,2020,11(12):2573-2592
云南省耕地 “非粮化”现状及其生态环境效应
Situation of non-grain cropland and its eco-environmental effect in Yunnan Province
投稿时间:2020-06-28  
DOI:
中文关键词: 耕地利用  非粮化  生态环境效应  云南
英文关键词: cultivated land utilization, non-grain cropland, eco-environmental effect, Yunnan Province
基金项目:云南富源-贵州盘州能源矿产集中区生态修复支撑调查(编号:DD20208075)、青藏高原自然资源要素综合观测试点(编号:DD20208064)联合资助。
作者单位
杨朝磊 中国地质调查局昆明自然资源综合调查中心,云南 昆明 650100 
李灿锋 中国地质调查局昆明自然资源综合调查中心,云南 昆明 650100 
田瑜峰 中国地质调查局昆明自然资源综合调查中心,云南 昆明 650100 
周洪 中国地质调查局军民融合地质调查中心,四川 成都 610000 
何建宁 中国地质调查局海口海洋地质调查中心,海南 海口 570100 
刘建平 中国地质调查局西安矿产资源调查中心,陕西 西安 710000 
马一奇 中国地质调查局昆明自然资源综合调查中心,云南 昆明 650100 
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中文摘要:
      耕地“非粮化”是不同社会要素与自然资源要素相互耦合的综合作用结果,“非粮化”可以带来较高的经济效益与社会效益,但该现象长期演变所导致的生态环境效应却很少有人关注,长此以往,势必会对中国的自然生态保护产生严重影响,亟须引起各方面的重视。基于此,该文选择云南省作为研究对象,通过系统的农业数据收集,对该省的耕地“非粮化”现状及其生态环境效应进行深入分析与研究。1989—2018年,云南省的耕地“非粮化”趋势不断上升,1989年全省粮作比例为0.809,2018年已下降至0.606,年均下降0.67%,根据粮作比例变动强度,可将该省的16个州市分为5个等级:昭通(-0.098%~-0.550%)>大理、怒江、曲靖、保山、迪庆、丽江(-0.551%~-0.837%)>普洱、红河、西双版纳(-0.838%~-0.995%)>德宏、临沧、楚雄、昆明、文山(-0.996%~-1.492%)>玉溪(-1.493%),其中,昭通市的粮作比例变动强度最小,表明其种植业结构相对稳定,而玉溪市的“非粮化”趋势则最为突出。耕地“非粮化”会对土壤环境、水生态环境与大气环境产生严重影响,造成土壤污染、耕地肥力下降、水生态环境破坏、水质变劣、地下水位下降、农业源温室气体排放量增加等现象,十分不利于国家应对气候变化,降低农业源污染和减缓GHG排放等重大生态工程的实施,下一步应从“非粮化”主导因素、生态价值损失估算、生态补偿机制建立以及对粮食安全保障的影响评价等方面加强研究,不断探索与制定合理比例的“山、水、林、田、湖、草”均衡发展模式。
英文摘要:
      The situation of non-grain cropland in Yunnan province usually results from the joint effects of natural resources and social elements. The non-grain conversion can bring high economic and social benefit, but few people pay attention to the eco-environmental effect caused by long-term evolution of non-grain cropland, over time, it will be have influence on the stratagem of ecological protection of China, which should be given more attention. Therefore, this paper aims at the situation of the arable land of Yunnan province, through the comprehensive data collection, making a profound study for the phenomenon of non-grain cropland and its negative environmental effect. The trend of non-grain was climbing steadily from 1989 to 2018. In 1989, the percentage of cereal crop is 0.809,2018 dropped to 0.606, the yearly descending rate was 0.670%. The 16 cities of Yunnan Province all have different extent of the situation of non-grain cropland, based on the annual average movement intensity for the area of cereal crop to crops ratio, which could divide into 5 different grades:Zhaotong(-0.098%~-0.550%)>Dali, Nujiang, Qujing, Baoshan, Diqin, Lijiang (-0.551%~-0.837%)>Puer, Honghe,Xishuanbanna (-0.838%~-0.995%)>Dehong,Lincang,Chuxiong,Kunming,Wenshan (-0.996%~-1.492%)> Yuxi(-1.493%).These figures suggest that the structure of cultivation for Zhaotong is relatively constant, while the situation of non-grain cropland for Yuxi is the most outstanding. With long-term evolution of non-grain cropland, the ecological environment about soil, water, atmospheric would be affected, caused soil pollution, farmland fertility decline, water eco-environment deterioration, water quality becomes inferior, groundwater lowering and agricultural greenhouse gases emissions increased ,it will be bad for the action about Chinese great ecological project, such as climate change adaptation, controlling agricultural pollution, reduce GHG emissions. Next, the research on dominant factors about non-grain cropland, estimation of economic loss form ecological deterioration, ecological compensation mechanism and impact assessment for the food security should be strengthened, meanwhile, constantly explore the rational proportion of the balanced development pattern of “life community of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes and grasses”.
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